Sabtu, 30 Oktober 2010



  1. Iskandar Zulkarnaen as a Master student of University of Rochester in Visual and Cultural Studies. "This is cool stuff. Kudos!" (October 18th, 2009).
  2. Lestari Manggong as a Master student of University of Kent at Canterbury in Postcolonial Studies. "What you’ve put down here is quite a mouth full, yet intriguing, Reza. When reading this, Neo (The Matrix) and Johnny Mnemonic (Johnny Mnemonic) came to mind. (Obviously I bring these two up not because I’m a huge fan of Keanu Reeves, but more to the idea of data/information, or in your dictionary, ‘knowledge’ being transferred to human brain). But I have to say that this dream about humans not doing harm to each other since, as you put it, ‘global citizen won't recognize any substandard neighborhood’ due to what you believe that the chemistry between brain activity and human emotion ‘will direct them to be more harmonious,’ is still too utopic. I have no intention to sound discouraging, but the harsh fact is that somewhere along the line of the process of this instant knowledge acquisition, there’s an inevitable interference of looking at things in binary opposition, and thus treating whatever it is we see as such. And another harsh fact is that it is these very oppositions that create balance on the evolution of human race/culture/ideology. What have you to say about this?" (October 19th, 2009).


Reza Putra CC 2009

The failure of Google and the rest (web-based) search engines in knowledge distribution has been exposed (Kawell, et al., 2009). How about the latest innovation published by the Stanford duo in improving the use of email by releasing Google Wave? Although the live feature is known cool, in my view, it's not as much helping when being justified with large-scale (global) longevity, education, and wealth currently promoted. Subsequently, is there a better method in sharing knowledge to dismiss present gap? Globalization bias, here we go again...

Keywords: major - knowledge representation—i.e. storage and manipulation topics, knowledge transfer, applied advanced technology; minor - Artificial Intelligence (AI), communication, human development, knowledge distribution, knowledge management, knowledge retrieval, System Intelligence (SI)

Could knowledge be physical? ...

Stolen from NeuroSky (2009)

... I mean, could the knowledge on human brain have physical representation? Correspondingly, would it be temporary and touchable? In today culture, visual representation of knowledge have been generated in diversed fields. In linguistics, particularly on written communication, this planet has alphabetical systems (orthography) for most languages. In advanced, our society even has various artificial languages—e.g. more editable (dynamic) computer languages with simplified syntax such as PHP and XML rather than basic DOS, or static HTML; in information technology, there are television, storage devices, portable devices, etc.; in beaux arts, there are painting, and sculpture. At the moment, here I inquiry, would it be possible for the knowledge, the idea, the notion, the reasoning, the concept, the thought itself being personified into specific image?—Onto hologram, for instance? Will it be possible for human to translate electrical wave of his brain state and activity into such form? The goal is simple, namely to simplify the acquiring process of learning then people around the globe can access a piece of information (knowledge) evenly. No hesitance about teacher qualification, and school facility; global citizen will posses benchmarked minds at exact rate—even in a low GDP nation.


Generally, knowledge is interpreted as information and skills acquired through experience or education (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 2001; Wikipedia, 2009f). Experience makes expertise; respectively, it takes time. The question is can we build an effort on spatio-temporal thing here? We were born, have grown up, and, most of us, are living a life under an instant age. We are all instant generation, aren't we? Will it make us a criminal for shortening up the process of knowledge acquisition—e.g. language acquisition? In my opinion, it loans us Einstein dress instead :))1 It makes us feel up-most at any state of being handy, comfy, and lucky creature synchronously.

So far, in knowledge transfer, there is one taxonomy of knowledge consisting of (Blackler, 1995 in Wikipedia, 2009j; cf. Fan, 1998):

  1. embrained knowledge, a knowledge associated to conceptual skills and cognitive abilities—e.g. taking a teacher's explanation, asking a question, practicing in anger management, etc.;
  2. embodied knowledge, a knowledge based on action and contextual practices—e.g. surfing the internet, speaking foreign languages, driving a car, etc.;
  3. encultured knowledge, a knowledge gained by acculturation and socialization—e.g. eating, praying, respecting, loving, etc.;
  4. embedded knowledge, a knowledge engaged in systematic routines—e.g. making report in your workplace, doing homework, following up a client, etc.; and
  5. encoded knowledge, a knowledge encoded into symbols and connected to transmission—e.g. data on articles, books, web pages, etc..

The idea of this writing covers all the aforementioned types of knowledge. From the same source, it deals more with the transmission, storage and interrogation of knowledge. Into the bargain, it even adheres to mental state as well. Here are the take-offs—how I start and develop a mean of knowledge transfer in a futuristic discourse.


In Plato's theory of universals, He said that knowledge is a mere recollection. From this, Socrates, his teacher, also exposed that his shortage of memorizing could be an associated factor. Moreover, he marked up that it may not be empirical. Using their theories as the primary reference, I then propose three enquiries as follows:

  1. it's presumable that knowledge is renewable and/or replaceable;
  2. according to the term of Aristotle's metaphysics, will it be possibly positive to interlink knowledge with materialistic entities? For example, to sort it into the same cohort with paper-based books, human organs, sportive pants, etc.?;2
  3. reflexively, knowledge could be a matter of nihilism—nothingness. In a sense that immaterial objects are on the highest rank of philosophy.3

According thereto, ancient philosophers have ensured us that there's no unsaid precondition to say that (mental) knowledge could possibly have the physical visual representation.


Previously, I alluded that the current condition cannot describe an ideal distribution of knowledge. In Indonesia, we can easily tag the gap. There's a big, big, big hole separating us from our educated brothers. In my opinion, conflicts are usually encountered by under-supplied knowledge among a number of minds in both poles. An end-conflict could be an item of total misunderstandings. In the holographic aeon, I predict (dream) that human knowledge is to be transferable (borrowed) with no account for conventional actions taken, i.e. reading, listening, watching, and so on. Like a folder of data, I incessantly deem that knowledge could be copied, pasted, removed, reserved, and even modified by full human authority—in compact literary meaning, i.e. 'finger touch' (tactile).



In neurology, neurons keep alive by a process of stagnant learning (citation challenged). In linguistic logic, 'learning' is recognized as a synonymy for 'knowledge'. So it means, by keep feeding a man's brain with any update, it can sharpen his dullness. The problem is ... there are a number of barriers contracting a person's knowledge. One of them could be financial affairs. Journals, seminars, symposiums—available for download—are intended for the experts (cf. Bush in Kwadell, 2009?) while articles—also available for download—are for the general learners; what could be a source for the less-motivated novice? Is there anything that the poor can download? A unit of personal computer (PC) remains costly in most remote areas (cf. Population Reference Bureau, 2009). That's a confirmed fact. All-purposely, it could be social fact. We badly need a better mechanism to share our knowledge—any kind of knowledge putting up the sapience (wisdom) of Homo sapiens.

Arrived to here, critics like Alfred Binet, Stephen Jay Gould, Daniel Schacter, and Daniel Gilbert who argue intelligence measurement in most IQ tests may no longer be claimed as utopists. I go along with them for a theory suggesting that this world requires a better improved methodology in benchmarking human intelligence (cf. Borsboom, 2006). IQ sounds too Scandinavian, I rethink—just like how Human Development Index (HDI) measured in keeping materialistic entities alone. I agree that morality shouldn't be avoided (Caplan, 2008; Lasu, year?). It's more than likely that politicians in the United Nations have underdeveloped the gist of human development.


In conventional way, two persons are used to share knowledge simply by making a dialogue in circles to which they belong. The problem then appears when he is asked to provide a clear explanation for a/an complex, abstract, and/or new reasoning (cf. Anonymous, 2009: 17). In short, only a certain number of individuals receive education for or has passion in pedagogy; only a certain number of them has a proper persuasive communication generating people interest. Learning is bi-direction, right? Lecturing calls for some skills. Sociobiologically speaking, helpful teachers may be dominated by women (Pease dan Pease, 2009). Prior to feminism, without anticipation, men might not be able to fix their reputation—even the most communicative (warm-hearted) gay teachers; they would be hopeless too.

I'm not speaking that either gender has to have even rate in all spheres of professions. Our brain structure is reported failed to perform such will. By applying a new methodology in sharing knowledge, either male or female will possess more options in walking on a career steadily.


With the popularity of emotional intelligence introduced a couple years ago, it can be said that the agreement between human intelligence and emotion would reach a higher level. In acknowledgment that human emotion is also affected by brain activity (lihat Pease dan Pease, 1999), I believe that the chemistry will direct them to be more harmonious in human life—even in Africa, a few parts of Indonesian territories, and the rest remote areas those are currently sharing under $2 per day to survive (cf. Population Reference Bureau, 2009).

In this idea, I believe that global citizen won't recognize any substandard neighborhood. Hence, they cannot harm each other. Will it be rightly fictitious? Do you think 'homo-homoni-lupus' statement is everlastingly referential? I believe that it mustn't be forever—at least, on many rivalry-base senses apparently outdated.

Since then, anyone can carry out any datum they wish to have. In a social group, with the facilities for knowledge acquisition at that time, which enable knowledge hunt to come much more emotional and personal. Within a robust social relationship, everyone can be a teacher; every space is a classroom; every second is knowledge transfer. A minimal number of healthy minds will be corrected—supplied! :)) Completing two principals in figuring the origin of human intelligence, learning should be social; neurologist, psychologist, and psychiatrist admitted it (University of Washington's Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences for, 2009a; cf. Alan Decker and the Machine Perception Lab, Movellan and Sejnowski from University of California, San Diego; the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development).

In a disperse sense what knowledge means, I think that knowledge can be a power for human to love. More aggregated their knowledge is, more loving (affectionate) they will be. The basic approach is, knowledge (un/dis)covers reasoning; reasoning carries a reason. The more reasons they can have, the more things they don't know. Because in general, knowledge flips a person. When they find a (new) problem, their way of reasoning may put them everywhere in random. Exocentrically, the more careful they will be—the more imprecise their deed may appear. Along with a great leadership, they may become 'reflexive' and 'flexible'—given that those two adjectives has positive sense.


By a certain feature, it's clear that forgetfulness would be no longer cited as a problem. In an illness with higher risk, this technology might get rid of amnesia, Alzheimer, Hyperthymesia, Korsakoff's psychosis, and other memory-related diseases. This would be a whale-size step, don't you think?



When a brain runs a task—storing a piece of information, e.g. in verbal, written or visual form, etc.; neurons inside the brain are proactive. They connect each other by sending signal in particular electrical behavior. For censorial tasks, these neurons are automatically restless—even when we are sleeping; but for motor assignments, they need a "stimulus". In daily practice, the number of "stimulus" are enormous. It can be another human or inanimate objects. To read a book, punch a betrayal, or mourn somebody's loss, human body has a number of chemical substance to work as stimulant. The fact is, we don't have any artificial stimulant that can put our brain into reaction for such tasks—storing, editing, deleting data, etc. The real challenge is, scientists are encouraged to design a set of devices consisting of, at least, four elements. Firstly, a reactor working to call for a possible command. Secondly, an encoder working to encrypt the command. Particularly, this device works to encode the language of brain—neurons. Thirdly, a decoder working to translate the brain language into light code, i.e. holographic form. And fourthly, a messenger working to transmit the hologram out of the brain.

When the tactile (touchable) holographic visualization appears, by the same active reactor (device), another brain is set up to receive or send a datum. In a little while, these two brains are ready to communicate each other.


In the 2005, a group of scientists from the Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience of the Miami (Ohio) University reported that BCI might help human in learning (craving for knowledge) (United Press International, 2005 in, 2005a). BCI is a tool permitting a specific artificial object to be straightly attached to the brain. The practical use could be understood in medical sphere, e.g. diminishing blindness, immobility of a patient of stroke, etc. BCI has various types. According to the brain (esp. cortex) contact, BCI can be divided into: (a) invasive BCI; (b) partially invasive BCI; and (c) non-invasive BCI. The products are abundant. There are Electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), etc. The latest innovation could be Cell-culture BCI, i.e. a BCI that can operate outside the brain itself. Therefore, it would seemingly be indistinguishable how a bluetooth generally work. While BCI is used to touch a specific area of the brain, neuroprosthetics is otherwise. At the moment, the difference between how BCI and bluetooth work are subtle. Media informed that there's a number of wireless BCI released. In contrast with the past, today non-invasive BCI has been equipped with a well-built transmitter. Consequently, the later generation of non-invasive BCI is reported to have stronger signal. In my opinion, it's not an exaggeration to predict how the devices will be designated as long as it's technically (technologically) approved.

This set of devices would send signals to brain areas covering memorizing. Mainly, it would contact four main areas where the memory stores either a short-term or long-term datum, i.e. the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, or mammillary bodies (cf. Wikipedia, 2009k) to translate our mental state of knowledge and finally discharge it into holographic form right after the stimulus sent.


IN NEUROLOGY (challenging citation offered)

Human brain consists of hundred billion of neurons functioning as porters. Like a network of the internet, each neuron plays a role as a computer. On this reflection, I'd like to propose an idea about transforming human (a user), by a help from an electronic device, then Homo sapien can be understood as a "labial" computer.

Bring it into reality, some upholding researches have been carried out, among other things, are:
  1. human brain replication project that is going to be undertaken in 2019 (Professor Markram of Brain Mind Institute in Switzerland for AlphaGalileo in, 2009d);
  2. a discovery stating that part of human brain functions like a digital computer (Professor Randall O'Reilly from University of Colorado at Boulder in, 2006a); and
  3. another discovery reporting that mammalian brain recognizes neurons to restrain into polyfriendship (The Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Louisanne (EPFL) in, 2006b). There is no ad hoc relationship among one neuron to another. A separate report also stated that how a neuron works is much akin to Darwinian theory (citation challenged)—it always looks for stable friends despite of weaker friends. When the "weak" friends transmit low signal, the electrical relationship ends there. Sounds familiar? Neurons are politicians, everybody! Hahaha...
From the findings mentioned, I then advise a set of feedback as follows:
  1. if they can reproduce a brain as a whole, will it be implausible for them to copy-paste a part what on the brain is? Unlike a set of PC, the biocomputer of human is monic. Human brain performs multitask as an all-in-one device. For a Homo sapien, brain functions as a hard disk, memory (RAM), and processor (CPU) en bloc (citation challenged);
  2. by the similarity with digital computer, we may treat our brain as a PC. The scientist' report shouldn't be underdeveloped. It's more than a metaphor, I deem; and
  3. by changing its partner overtime, a number of neuron's "slot" for connection is unlimited. It means it can have a sum of recipients as much as the transmitters—not trying to be sexist, do you think neuron is biologically an alpha-male? Hahaha... Seriously for a joke (lihat Pease dan Pease, 1999 - Why Men Don't Listen [a]nd Women Can't Read Maps: Understanding man's polygamous relationship in sociobiology perspective). Back to the business, this neurologist' finding could outline a prospect that the cerebral communication authorizes multiuser.
IN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY (cf., 1999; Wikipedia, 2009den)

When it was firstly introduced in 1947, hologram was produced fragile because lack of coherent light. Soon after Light Amplified by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) was founded, then it appears more vivid. Hologram then known has four dimension, i.e. height, width, depth, and time (motion) (cf., 1999; Einstein, 1920: 37-38). Recently, scientists in Shinoda Lab from Tokyo University inspired a group of audience by presenting a set of touchable 3D holograms. The ringleader said that they radiates ultrasound to let human sense the holograms.

By here, it's not impossible for us to touch our mental knowledge soon after the visualization can be projected into 3D space.


Kawell, et al. (2009?) has been designing search engine with complex algorithm that permits a user to chose his/her own finding. The result of searching is predicted to be no longer "systemized" by the engine. Correspondingly, it makes the process of searching come personal and credible.

By this finding, the process of searching (learning) will be more convincing for each mind. An enlarged possibility to manage our knowledge comes much efficient and personal.

Related to this passage, an idea that I'm trying to figure out may be cited on the next domain of knowledge engineering (KE) of Feigenbaum and McCorduck (1983) (cf. Wikipedia, 2009g); still, it's not KE. The transfer view of KE means transferring a knowledge to a computer system. The intelligence that is caused by is planted into an inanimate being—and that's what McCarthy (1955-1956) named for Artificial Intelligence (AI). In the meantime, this writing takes "software engineering" into a compact human integration. The transfer view is pointed toward man-man relationship principal; not man-computer relationship. Having lack of control in fear management, any human could be robotic; by this new sharing, I hope (dream), man would behave like more humane (benevolent)—in spite of the technical condition of this sharing method shown.


Pragmatism is a theory of philosophy meaning for evaluating a theory or belief toward the success of its practical application. By the earlier passages, we can assess that holographic knowledge is not rightly impossible to be applied. But will be another effect beyond the central uses? Clear of that, will be a task for us to vanish spheres in human intelligence? To avoid this disaster, the use of this technology should be intensely evaluated and assessed periodically—per annum for instance—and regionally, in certain.


In Platonic epistemology it is said that knowledge could be also interpreted as a subjective expertise. Imaginarily, tomorrow people may be having Dumbledore's pensive for each! :)) That's why the process of transferring it is uneasy as it may not appear. I regard that to introduce a new topic into a new brain is a difficult task—or even problematic. To prevent them collide needs mutual endeavor. When knowledge becomes totally touchable—in compact literary meaning—I hope that this thread can be translated. Optimistically, adequate intelligence—that surpasses minimum standard—can be possessed globally. Ya se ve, conducive sociopolitical and economic situation is compulsory. If today gap persists, this kind of finding may get it widen—rather than narrow. OMG, claim me wrong :((


Due to the worry of gap in information distribution—it's subtly poked that while some people know too much; some other receive less; in prophesy, if there's no anticipation, chaos in the future, foreseeably, will occur more massive in cause of the corrupted evenness (cf. Bush, 1945 in Kawell, et al., 2009). Due to Aristotle' s concept of potentiality and actuality, I concern that there would be negative alteration on the value of knowledge. In this phase, people's knowledge may refer to illogical cases much frequent in spite of knowledge per se. In other word, with inherited fuss among western scientist and theologian earlier, tomorrow people will be more religious in the rise of theological (non-empirical) reasonings.5 And since the position of knowledge becomes more delicate before many-many years in BC, in respect that it posses bigger risk of modification—manipulation, with a super-duper complex and grande network, tomorrow people may have various subtle religions than ever! How do you think? By this paragraph, will you speak that this finding could be more wasteful (destructive) rather than useful (constructive) to human life? I hope no.


When the visual representation for human knowledge is accessible, the problem than rise, particularly, on:
  1. Will the method demand a sustaining costly device?
  2. How can we persuade the cost into diet?
It's more than likely when the technology is reproduced, the cost of a unit of PC will be no longer high. But who can put a guarantee among this subsistent socioeconomic gap? I concern that the gap may cultivate the median in upper-level diagonal rather than in placed horizontal.

Reza Putra CC 2009

A cost for a commercial BCI is relatively affordable. In gaming industry, a BCI-based controller is tagged for about $199 (cf., 2009; Nintendo Wii). While in other fields, e.g. military, transportation, education, and health, the price skyrockets. In fact, excluding clinical study, BCI devices haven't approved to sale (BrainGate on

At the end, if this finding is designed to appear as an end-contribution for all, why it should be commercialized? :) Don't you all already feel hard to breathe in capitalism? It's effortless to word that capitalism could be a realistic fences how this technologically works properly. Bad news, the development of BCI technology is published to be profit-share. LG Electronics and Ziyitong Technology Co. Ltd.—China mobile—are also reported engaged in co-work (Johsnon, 2009).


This passage will exhibit some pending findings that can accommodate the idea to destination.
  1. Understanding brain completely. To "manipulate" a thing from its proper function, we have to know what's the main function first. To control human brain as a unit of PC, we have to comprehend how the brain works. In fact, biologist even cannot understand how the brain comes into function—e.g. how to make a person become so smart, etc. But I'm not speaking about how to utilize human brain as an improper tool; I'm talking about how we can optimize it—in received morality of course. To cope with this issue, a group of scientists from IBM and EPFL have drafted a blueprint of human brain in 3D model by the year 2005. They fashioned what is called Blue Gene as the supercomputer that can order the model to perform any expected task. By then, they'd draw more knowledge in understanding how the brain actually works up to the molecular level. It's just getting sharper, don't you think? (cf., 2005ab). Likewise, another publication also states that neuroscientist have successfully spotted where the intelligence on (cf. California Institute of Technology in, 2009).
  2. knowledge tagging (cf. Wikipedia, 2009i). Knowledge tagging means sorting various knowledge into different groups. So therefore, finding an intended subject will be problem-free. In conventional term, knowledge tagging can be associated to 'keyword'. Knowledge tagging comes sufficient for knowledge transferability. By the same importance, this finding may refer to acknowledgment in handling any type of memories—i.e. short-term and long-term memory. So far, psychiatrist in UCLA (2006) have reported that a man may improve his memory by incorporating some exercises, healthy eating, and kind of. Yes, it's not impractical; still, it frustratingly takes time.
  3. Holographic brain theory (Pribram, 1977). It said when a brain stores information, it will be cited throughout the whole brain. There is no a specific cite for a specific memory. Well, to process this business is surely tough.
Throughout those links above, then this writing's propriety counts on.



The same idea is spoken in communications perspective. It is called hologram communications. Comparatively similar to my work, the author combines philosophy-physical abstraction and other related scientific evidences (theories) as his initial proposal. On a few pages, he even details his approach by demonstrating relevant supposition from quantum and theoretical physics. You can see his bold rationalization particularly on how he bridges communication theory and relativity theory of Einstein. The author develops Einstein's E=MC2 as transpired here (cf. The Lorentz Transformation; Minkowski's Four−Dimensional Space in Einstein, 1920: 21-23, 37-38). Personally speaking, I'm quite uncertain on his work. [Nah!] For such concern, I invite you, readers, to inspect my writing :D

INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM BY NEUROSKY ® 2009; AND INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS (IEEE) © 2009 (cf. System Intelligence by Hämäläinen and Saarinen, 2004)

NeuroSky is a company releasing BCI products. The company pokes various areas of industries, i.e. game, sport, health, safety, transportation, logistics, security, military, and (homo) intelligence. Occupied by a steady cooperation with the government of developed countries (citation challenged), NeuroSky is developing what is called Intelligence System. I don't know precisely what it's all about; but, in practice, we can say that it's a tool for secured, private, and trusted e-government and e-participation (e-democracy) (cf. Anonymous, 2009; Jaeger and Thompson, 1995). According to NeuroSky, Intelligence System is reported to be released in 2013. Technically speaking, it might be associated to the idea of this reflection in general; yet this NeuroSky's patent is not essential to be evenly leveled with Holographic Form of Homo Knowledge that I put forward. The spirit is much contradicted. While Holographic Form of Homo Knowledge means ubiquitous, timeless, and unanimous; Intelligence System is not necessarily available anywhere, anytime, for anybody. Intelligence System would be fashioned regarding to an isolated knowledge restricting its access (cf. Anonymous, 2009: 17).6 Another company that also manufactures intelligence system is, at slight non-plus, Microsoft. The software itself is marketed for medical practice and health care.

Reza Putra
Bekasi, October 18th, 2009

  1. There's a statement that knowledge is on the highest level of triad. On the lower level there is information, and data in the following (citation challenged). A priori, there's a theory called communication energy theory. On that theory, speed (velocity) becomes one of its functions (cf., 1999; Fizeau, year? in Einstein, 1920).
  2. Cf. Aristotle on Posterior Analytics (Book 1, Part 2).
  3. Cf. Popper (1975) on "The rationality of scientific revolutions"; in Rom Harré (ed.), Problems of Scientific Revolution: Scientific Progress and Obstacles to Progress in the Sciences. Clarendon Press: Oxford.
  4. On his book entitled "Politics", he wrote, "Man is by nature a political animal." By this sentence, it can be a strict guide that each animal possesses its individual power.
  5. Even though, there's a trend in Islam to translate its doctrine into logical approach since some years ago (citation challenged). Speaking widely, the explained doctrines remain lesser than those that aren't elucidated yet by Islamic scholars. I think, this kind of enquiries can persuade a mayhem even smoother when western's standard is associated.7 Take feminism as a case, and link it with a number of suras in An-Nisa—mentok-mentok palingan berhenti di masalah susunan otak laki-laki yang tertuliskan bahwa ia tersistem untuk berperan lebih sebagai 'breeder' alih-alih 'keeper' :P (Pease dan Pease, 1999). Mengapa Tuhan menciptakan laki-laki seperti itu? Apakah ada hubungannya dengan "epidemi"? Saya benar-benar tidak tahu. Apakah terdapat kewajiban khusus yang diemban oleh laki-laki dari otak poligaminya? Hmmm, apakah dengan ini, lagi-lagi, Islam mengecewakan kaum feminis? Menurut saya, bila bicara soal dominasi gender mungkin iya; tapi kalo soal keseteraan gender, lebih dari kelihatannya, maka jawabannya cenderung tidak. Hehehe...
  6. One of the four authors writing Intelligence System version IEEE is Konstantinos A. Tarabanis. He's a professor in the Department of Business Administration at the University of Macedonia, Greece. It can explains why the concept is much like business-oriented.
  7. It's almost impossible to detach western from today Islamic practices at all. Still, it's unclever to view Islam from western standard. If it's insisted, the result must be disappointing)—e.g. happening thriving cultures in fashion, music, and film. What I'm trying to word here is they are interlinked each other—at least, in historical politics, and cultural contact (cf. Pipes, 2009; Roy, 1995)—for instance, lexical borrowing trend in scientific area ahead of 20th century (cf. Bloomfield, 1872).

a priori (Latin) = from what is before
ad hoc (< Latin) = formed
allege (< français) = do st. bad with no proof
beaux arts (< français) = fine arts
cf. (< Latin, 'confer') = compare
cohort (< français, 'cohorte') = group
compte rendu (< français) = (formal) review
cultus (< Latin) = a system or variety based on religious worship
en bloc (< français) = all together
equivoque (< français) = ambiguity
exempli gratia (e.g.) (< Latin) = for example
grande (< español) = big
homo (< Latin) = man, modern human. In biology, it's a genus of primates.
id est (i.e.) (< Latin) = that is
labial (< Latin) = in phonetics, partial
monic (< Greek) = in mathematics, highest value regarded to 1
pending (< français, 'pendant') = hanging
per se (< Latin) = on itself, themselves
tip = predict
ubiquitous (< Latin) = (found) everywhere
unanimous (< Latin) = everyone (involved)
ya se ve (< español) = of course



Anonymous. 2009. "Transforming E-government and E-participation through IT". Available online here (accessed on Octiber 17th, 2009).

Blackler, F. 1995. Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organizations: An Overview and Interpretation. Organization Studies(6), 1021-1046.

Borsboom. 2006. "The attack of the psychometricians." Psychometrika Vol. 71, No. 3, 425–440. Available online here (accessed on October 16th, 2009).

Caplan, Bryan. 2009. "Against the Human Development Index. Library of Economics and Liberty". Available online here (accessed on October 18th, 2009).

Concise Oxford Dictionary (Tenth Edition), Version 1.1, 2001. [Files on CD-ROM]. Oxford University Press. 2009. "About [BrainGate]". Available online here (accessed on October 16th, 2009). 1999. "Hologram communications". Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Kawell, Daniel A. 2009? "Knowledge Construction [w]ith Visual Representations [o]f Distributed Information". Available online here (accessed on September 26th, 2009). (Brain-Computer Interface Technologies). 2009. "About Us". Available online here (accessed on October 16th, 2009).

Pease, Allan dan Barbara Pease. 2009. Why Men Don't Listen [a]nd Women Can't Read Maps. Jakarta: Ufuk Press. 2005a. "Brain computer interface may help learning". - Other Sciences. Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009). 2005b. "IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer to create digital 3D model of the brain". - Other Sciences. Available online here (accessed on September 26th, 2009). 2006a. "Part [o]f Human Brain Functions [l]ike [a] Digital Computer, Professor Says"., Medicine & Health - Psychology & Psychiatry. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009). 2006b. "Rewiring the mammalian brain - neurons make fickle friends"., Medicine & Health - Neuroscience. Available online here (accessed on October 16th, 2009). 2008a. "'Chatter Box' computer will unravel the science of language"., Medicine & Health - Psychology & Psychiatry. Available online here (accessed on September 26th, 2009). 2008b. "Scientists Gain Important Insights Into how Brain Transfers, Processes and Stores Visual Information"., Medicine & Health - Research. Available online here (accessed on September 26th, 2009). 2009a. "Learning is social, computational, supported by neural systems linking people"., Medicine & Health - Psychology & Psychiatry. Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009). 2009b. "Neuroscientists map intelligence in the brain"., Medicine & Health - Neuroscience. Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009). 2009c. "Scientist: Human brain could be replicated in 10 years"., Medicine & Health - Neuroscience. Available online here (accessed on September 26th, 2009). 2009d. "Touchable Hologram Becomes Reality"., Technology - Hi Tech. Available online here (accessed on September 26th, 2009).

Pipes, Daniel. 2009. "The Good Ayatollahs". Available online here (accessed on October 13th, 2009).

Population Reference Bureau. 2009. "2009 World Population Data Sheet". Available online here (accessed on September 5th, 2009).

Pribram, Karl. 1977. Languages of the Brain. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Wikipedia. 2009a. "Aristotle". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 5th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009b. "Brain-computer interface". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on October 13th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009c. "Epistomology". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009d. "Holographic principle". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009e. "Holography". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009f. "Knowledge". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009g. "Knowledge engineering". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009h. "Knowledge representation". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009i. "Knowledge tags". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009j. "Knowledge transfer". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009k. "Memory". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on October 13th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009l. "Philosophy". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009m. "Plato". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 5th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009n. "Technology". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).



Anton Nijholt, Desney Tan, Gert Pfurtscheller, Clemens Brunner, Jos? del R. Mill?,Brendan Allison, Bernhard Graimann, Florin Popescu, Benjamin Blankertz, Klaus-R. M?, "Brain-Computer Interfacing for Intelligent Systems," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 72-79, May/June 2008, doi:10.1109/MIS.2008.41.

Basu, Ratan Lal. Year? "HDI Ancient India". Available online here (accessed on October 18th, 2009).

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1976. Language Thirteen Impression. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

Einstein, Albert. 1920. "Relativity: The Special and General Theory". London: Methuen & Co Ltd. Available online here (accessed on September 28th, 2009).

Fan, Y. 1998. "The Transfer of Western Management to China: Context, Content and Constraints", Management Learning, 29:2, 201-221. Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009).

Genaro Rebolledo-Mendez, Ian Dunwell, Erika A. Martínez-Mirón, María Dolores Vargas-Cerdán, Sara de Freitas, Fotis Liarokapis, and Alma R. García-Gaona, "Assessing NeuroSky’s Usability to Detect Attention Levels in an Assessment Exercise," Human-Computer Interaction. New Trends, Vol. 5610, pp. 149-158, July 14, 2009, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02574-7_17.

Hämäläinen, Raimo and Esa Saarinen (eds.). 2004. "Systems Intelligence - Discovering a hidden competence in human action and organizational life: Systems Analysis Laboratory Research Reports". Available online here (accessed on October 18th, 2009).

Jaeger, P. and K. Thompson, "E-government around the World: Lessons, Challenges, and Future Directions," Government Information Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 4, 2003, pp. 389–394.

Johnson, R. Colin. 2005. "Brain wave sensor system taps Bluetooth marshaled for mind readers". EE Times. Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009).

McCarthy, John, et al. (1955). "A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence". Stanford University. Available online here (accessed on October 18th, 2009). 2009. "Scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits"., Medicine & Health - Research. Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009).

Roy, Olivier. 1995. The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

Salam, Reihan. 2009. "The Death of Macho". Foreign Policy. Available online here (accessed on July 25th, 2009).

Shaw, M. 2001. "Integrating Learning Technologies: The social-cultural, pragmatic and technology design contexts". Available online here (accessed on October 17th, 2009).

Sztompka, Piötr. 2004. Sosiologi Perubahan Sosial. Jakarta: Prenada Media.

United Nation Development Program (UNDP) for United Nation (UN). 2008. "Technical Note 1: Calculating the human development indices". Pp. 335-361 in Human Development Report 2007/2008. Available online here (accessed on October 16th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Descriptive knowledge". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Digital holography". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Knowledge discovery". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Knowledge relativity". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Knowledge retrieval". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Marxism". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on October 15th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Normative science". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).

Wikipedia. 2009. "Procedural knowledge". Wikipedia. Available online here (accessed on September 25th, 2009).



Assorted revisions have been made on:
  1. October 19th, 2009 in grammar, orthography, citation information, text-formatting, and contextual logic
  2. October 20th, 2009 in grammar, text-formatting, and orthography
  3. October 21st, 2009 in grammar, and contextual logic
  4. March 21st, 2009 in grammar, syntax, and text-formatting.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar